|| The information in the archive was published by MAFF, Department of Health and the
Scottish Executive before April 1st 2000 when the Food Standards
Agency was established.
Number 184 August 1999
MAFF UK - DIOXINS AND PCBs IN UK AND IMPORTED MARINE FISH
Index to MAFF UK Food Surveillance Information
- A survey for dioxins and PCBs in 132 samples of marine fish has been
carried out by the MAFF/Department of Health (DH) Joint Food Safety and
Standards Group. Concentrations of these chemicals in the samples tested were
between 0.9 and 140 ng WHO-TEQ/kg fat.
- The estimated exposures to these chemicals from the diet of UK consumers
are within the current UK safety guideline (Tolerable Daily Intake, TDI).
However, some sub-groups of the UK population may exceed the recently
recommended WHO TDI.
- Having looked at the results of this survey, the independent expert
Committee on Toxicity of Chemicals in Food Consumer Products and the Environment
(COT) has recommended that UK adults should follow the COMA advice to eat one
portion of oily fish each week because of the demonstrated health benefits.
MAFF has completed a survey for dioxins, furans and polychlorinated
biphenyls (PCBs) in samples of various marine fish species, salmon and fish
fingers. Dioxins and PCBs are known to accumulate in fish, and consumption of
fish in the UK is increasing. This survey was carried out to enable the dietary
exposures of UK consumers to dioxins and PCBs from consumption of these fish to
be estimated. It complements an earlier survey for these chemicals in samples
of farmed trout.
More than 100 samples of cod, haddock, plaice, whiting, red fish, herring,
mackerel, salmon and fish fingers were analysed. Concentrations of dioxins and
PCBs were in the range 0.9-140 ng WHO-TEQ/kg fat.
Exposure to dioxins and PCBs from the consumption of fish in combination
with the rest of the diet was estimated to be 2.6 pg WHO-TEQ/kg bodyweight/day
for an average UK adult consumer and 5.6 pg WHO-TEQ/kg bodyweight/day for a high
level adult consumer. These estimated exposures are below the current UK
Tolerable Daily Intake (TDI) of 10 pg WHO-TEQ/kg body weight/day for dioxins and
PCBs. However high level adult exposure to dioxins and PCBs would slightly
exceed the TDI recently proposed by WHO.
The independent expert Committee on the Medical Aspects of Food Policy
(COMA) has advised that people should eat an average of one portion of oily fish
each week. On the basis of the results of this survey, the Committee on
Toxicity of Chemicals in Food, Consumer Products and the Environment (COT) has
recommended that adults should continue to follow the COMA advice, as it is
likely to provide health benefits for most adults without exceeding safety
guidelines for dietary exposure to dioxins and PCBs.
Dioxins and PCBs are very persistent chemicals which are ubiquitous in the
environment and are generally present in low concentrations in foods, especially
fat-containing foods including milk, meat and fish. Further background
information on dioxins and PCBs can be found in Food Surveillance Information
Sheets Numbers 105 and 106.1,2
Analytical results for dioxins and PCBs are expressed in terms of Toxic
Equivalents (TEQs). The concept of toxic equivalency is explained in more detail
in Food Surveillance Information Sheet Number 105.1
In summary, this pragmatic approach enables an assessment of the toxicological
significance of the complex mixtures of dioxin and PCB congeners found in foods
by applying weighting factors to express the toxicity of a 'dioxin-like'
compound in terms of the equivalent amount of one particular dioxin,
2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD). These weighting factors
are called Toxic Equivalency Factors (TEFs).
The Committee on Toxicity of Chemicals in Food, Consumer Products and the
Environment (COT) originally recommended the use of International Toxicity
Equivalency Factors (I-TEFs) for dioxins3 and
TEFs for PCBs recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO).4 Therefore, the results of all previous surveys for
dioxins and those JFSSG surveys for PCBs reported since 1997, including a survey
of farmed trout,5 have been reported using
those TEF systems. More recently, however, the COT has endorsed6 the use of a revised set of TEFs recommended by the
WHO for certain dioxins and PCBs congeners (WHO-TEFs).7
For some individual congeners, such as some dioxins, the TEFs have increased
and so these compounds now make a greater contribution to the overall TEQ value.
For other congeners, such as some individual PCBs, the weighting factors have
been reduced or withdrawn and so these compounds now make a smaller or no
contribution to the overall TEQ value.
Since in most food groups the levels (as TEQs) of dioxins exceed those of
PCBs, the effect of using the new WHO-TEFs to express concentration data is to
increase the overall concentrations compared with concentrations expressed using
the previously used TEF systems. However, depending on the relative
concentrations of dioxins and PCBs in individual foods and the pattern of the
individual congeners, the overall change in reported concentrations is
negligible, or even decreases for some food groups (including the fish group).
The concentrations of dioxins and PCBs in this information sheet are
expressed as WHO-TEQs, using the new WHO-TEF system. Where concentrations from
previous MAFF surveys and associated estimated dietary exposures are quoted,
these have been revised and are also expressed in terms of WHO-TEQs unless
otherwise stated. It is not generally possible to carry out such recalculations
for data from other surveys reported in the scientific literature, and which are
cited for comparison, as congener specific data are not usually given.
Total dietary exposures to dioxins and PCBs by UK consumers of different age
groups, based on the concentrations of these chemicals found in 1992 Total Diet
Study (TDS) samples,1 are re-expressed in terms
of WHO-TEQs in Table 1. Such estimated dietary
exposures to dioxins and PCBs in the UK are currently assessed against a
Tolerable Daily Intake (TDI) recommended in 1997 by the COT of 10 pg TEQ/kg
bodyweight/day for mixtures of dioxins and PCBs.8
However, a WHO-European Centre for Environment and Health/International
Programme on Chemical Safety (ECEH/IPCS) consultation has recently proposed a
lower TDI range of 1-4 pg TEQ/kg body weight/day for dioxins and PCBs.9 The COT will undertake a review of the data used to
derive this recently proposed TDI when a full report of the consultation is
MAFF has been conducting surveys for dioxins in food since 1989.10 Work has concentrated mainly on cows' milk as it is
widely consumed by a large proportion of the population. However, a limited
number of retail samples of marine fish (cod, plaice, coley, skate, herring and
mackerel) purchased in 1988 have also been analysed.10
The concentrations of dioxins in those fish samples were in the
range 2.1-38 ng WHO-TEQ/kg fat basis and 0.17-2.1 ng WHO-TEQ/kg fresh weight
MAFF has been conducting surveys for PCBs in food since the 1960s.11 Marine fish surveys have regularly been carried out
by CEFAS (formerly MAFF's Directorate of Fisheries Research).12,13 In the past, PCBs were analysed in combination
with organochlorine pesticides by reference to commercial formulations and the
results expressed as 'total PCB' concentrations. It is now possible to analyse
for individual PCB congeners and CEFAS and the Veterinary Medicines Directorate
(VMD) monitor for certain PCB congeners in wild and farmed fish species
Since 1994, dioxins and PCBs have generally been analysed together in
samples collected for JFSSG surveys. Total concentrations of dioxins and PCBs
in a survey of farmed trout in England and Wales collected in 1995 were in the
range 12-60 ng WHO-TEQ/kg fat basis, or 0.29-3.1 ng WHO-TEQ/kg fresh weight.
Total concentrations of dioxins and PCBs in the fish groups of the 1982 and 1992
Total Diet Study (TDS) were 17 and 6.5 ng WHO-TEQ/kg fat basis, or 1.3 and 0.60
ng WHO-TEQ/kg fresh weight, respectively.1 The
TDS samples comprise retail food products, prepared for consumption, and then
combined into composite samples in amounts reflecting average national dietary
habits in that year. Each composite sample represents a defined food group.
The composite fish group includes contributions from both marine and freshwater
fish in quantities reflecting their consumption in the UK.
No comprehensive survey for dioxins in marine fish has previously been
carried out by MAFF. The current survey also represents the first comprehensive
survey of marine fish for both dioxins and PCB congeners carried out by JFSSG
using analytical methodology capable of quantifying individual PCB congeners.
For this survey 108 samples of marine fish species (30 cod, 26 haddock, 13
plaice, 14 whiting, 2 red fish, 10 herring and 13 mackerel) were obtained
through Billingsgate Fish Market or the former Torry Research Station, Aberdeen,
at different seasons between November 1995 and December 1996. In addition, 12
samples of salmon were obtained through the former Torry Research Station around
January 1996, and 12 samples of fish fingers were obtained from retail outlets
in East Anglia between November 1995 and January 1996. The fish species were
categorised as either white fish (generally those with a fat content less than
10 per cent) or oily fish (generally those with a fat content of greater than 10
per cent, but also including trout), in line with the definitions used in
McCance and Widdowson's handbook of the composition of foods.14 The sampling plan was drawn up to reflect
geographical and seasonal variations in fish landed and imported into the UK.15 Analysis of the samples was not completed until
1998 due to pressure on the analytical facilities.
The marine fish samples comprised either fillets, for larger species such as
cod and haddock, or whole fish. Samples of whole fish were filleted, and all
individual fillets were skinned, sub-sampled and homogenised. Fish fingers were
homogenised complete with their bread crumb coatings. In contrast to the TDS
samples in which the foods are prepared as for consumption before compositing
and analysis (i.e. fish group components are cooked), the samples in the current
survey and the earlier survey of farmed trout were analysed raw. Many of the
samples in this survey have also been analysed for metals and other elements.16 A list of the samples analysed is given in
The analytical methodology for determining dioxin and PCB concentrations in
food has been reported previously.1,17
In the current survey the 17 dioxin congeners to which WHO-TEFs have been
assigned and the following PCB congeners were analysed: PCBs 77, 126 and 169
(non-ortho PCBs); and 18, 28, 31, 47, 49, 51, 52, 99, 101, 105, 114,
118, 123, 128, 138, 153, 156, 157, 167, 180 and 189 (ortho PCBs).
This congener set was agreed by the COT before the concept of TEFs was extended
from dioxins to PCBs. The only congener having a WHO-TEF which is not included
is PCB 81. The contribution to WHO-TEQ concentrations made by this congener
(which was included in the 1982 and TDS surveys)1
is however generally small. The details of the analytical method and quality
control criteria are given in the final report of the survey which is available
for public access in MAFF's library.18
All samples were analysed by high resolution gas chromatography coupled with
high or low resolution mass spectrometry (GC-MS) at the CSL Food Science
Laboratory, Norwich. The laboratory has participated in inter-laboratory trials
of measurement of dioxins and PCBs in human milk and human blood organised by
the WHO and has recognised expertise in the analysis of foods for dioxins and
PCBs. The reporting limit for ortho-PCBs in this survey was set to
0.13 micrograms/kg fat. Analytical difficulties associated with the low fat
contents of many of the white fish samples, led to considerable variation in the
limits of determination (LODs) for dioxins and non-ortho-PCBs, on a
fat basis. In these cases the reporting limit was the LOD which prevailed in
that instance. All analytical data were assessed for compliance with published
acceptance criteria.19 The concentrations in
this survey and dietary exposures calculated from them are upper bound
values. Upper bound concentrations assume that all congeners which
are present at concentrations below the reporting limit are present at the
reporting limit, and are therefore an overestimate of the true concentrations.
The coefficients of variation of reference materials, obtained by the
laboratory over a long period of time, are approximately 10 per cent for dioxins
and non-ortho-PCBs and 5 per cent for ortho-PCBs. The
coefficients of variation for the analysis of marine fish are likely to be of a
The upper bound concentrations of dioxins and PCBs are summarised
in Table 3. For those species for which both UK and
imported samples were analysed, the results are reported separately in
Table 3. Full congener specific data are available in
the final contractor's report of the survey.18
Measured fat contents of the samples were in the range 0.27-20.5 per cent.
This survey was started before introduction of the policy of providing brand
information with survey results. As the release of brand information was not
considered when this survey was planned, some of the details on the individual
samples tested (e.g. brand name, batch code, supplier, best before or use by
dates) are not available. However, all available sample details are reported
(see Table 8). The absence of a particular product means
only that the product was not included in the survey. No further meaning should
be read into the absence of that product from this survey.
In summary, the results for white fish (including fish fingers) were:
- Dioxins concentrations were in the range 0.3-43 ng WHO-TEQ/kg fat.
- PCBs concentrations were in the range 0.3-91 ng WHO TEQ/kg fat.
- The combined dioxins and PCBs concentrations were in the range 0.9-110 ng
For oily fish:
- Dioxins concentrations were in the range 1.0-38 ng WHO-TEQ/kg fat.
- PCBs concentrations were in the range 2.5-110 ng WHO TEQ/kg fat.
- The combined dioxins and PCBs concentrations were in the range 0.9-140 ng
Dioxins and PCBs are known to accumulate in fish, and fish therefore makes a
significant contribution to the estimated dietary exposure to dioxins and PCBs
in some countries where it is consumed in large quantities. Dietary exposures
to dioxins and PCBs were estimated from the results of the current survey using
the mean concentrations determined in each fish species. UK and imported fish
have been considered together for the purpose of calculating the mean
concentrations in individual fish species although red fish was not considered
as reliable consumption data are not available for this type of fish.
Concentrations of dioxins and PCBs in the fish portions of recipes made from
species analysed in the current survey were assumed to be the same as in the raw
parent fish; thus concentrations of dioxins and PCBs in kipper were assumed to
be the same as in raw herring. Concentrations in fish cakes and cod in bread
crumbs were assumed to be the same as in fish fingers. For trout, mean
concentrations of dioxins and PCBs were assumed to be those found during the
For all other fish species, including shellfish, the concentrations of
dioxins and PCBs were assumed to be that found in the 1992 TDS fish group (6.5
ng WHO TEQ/kg fat basis).1 The concentrations
of dioxins and PCBs found in the other 1992 TDS food group samples were assumed
for the remainder of the diet, as appropriate.
Estimated average and high level (97.5th percentile) dietary exposures to
dioxins and PCBs by UK adult, schoolchild and toddler consumers of marine fish,
in combination with the rest of the diet, are summarised in
Tables 4, 5 and
6 respectively. In summary, the dietary exposures to
dioxins and PCBs from consumption of fish and the remainder of the diet were
estimated to be:
- 2.6 pg WHO-TEQ/kg bodyweight/day for average adult consumers and 5.6 pg
WHO-TEQ/kg bodyweight/day for a high level (97.5th percentile) adult consumer;
- 2.8 pg WHO-TEQ/kg bodyweight/day for the average schoolchild consumer and
4.7 pg WHO-TEQ/kg bodyweight/day for a high level schoolchild consumer; and
- 5.5-6.5 pg WHO-TEQ/kg bodyweight/day for average and 8.3-10 pg WHO-TEQ/kg
bodyweight/day for high level toddler consumers respectively, depending on age
Adult dietary exposures to dioxins and PCBs were estimated using consumption
data from the British Adult Study (see Table 4).20 Dietary exposures were estimated separately for
each species or fish product included in the current survey. Adult dietary
exposures to dioxins and PCBs were estimated from consumption of (a) white fish,
(b) oily fish and (c) all fish and fish products (Table 4).
It should be noted that haddock and whiting were consumed by a limited number
(less than 2.5 per cent) of participants in the British Adult Survey and so the
estimated high level exposure to dioxins and PCBs from consumption of these fish
can be only approximate.
Corresponding dietary exposures to dioxins and PCBs of school children have
been estimated using consumption data from a 7-day weighed diary study of 2,697
10-to-11 and 14-to-15 year olds conducted in 1983.21
The estimated dietary exposures are summarised in Table 5.
In the British Schoolchildren Survey, there were no consumers of haddock and
only cod and fish fingers were consumed by more than 2.5 per cent of the
Dietary exposures to dioxins and PCBs have also been estimated
for UK toddlers using data from a dietary and nutritional study of children
to 4½ (Table 6), in which all food eaten in a
4-day period by each of 1,675 children in 1992-93 was recorded.22 However, it is not yet possible to take account in
the TDS of those foods which are consumed only by toddlers, which means that any
dietary exposures estimated from this dietary study would take account only of
consumption of adult foodstuffs. For this reason, provisional estimates of
toddlers dietary exposure to dioxins and PCBs have, on the advice of the COT,
previously been made on the assumption that the variety and proportions of foods
eaten by toddlers are the same as the foods eaten by adults.1 This assumption is reasonable when considering the
overall diet as the majority of toddlers will in general consume the same foods
as the rest of the family. Dietary exposures of toddlers have been estimated by
assuming that, for both dioxins and PCBs, the dietary exposure is proportional
to the energy content of the diet (Table 1). For
consistency, the same approach has been used again here to revise the estimated
dietary exposure of toddlers to dioxins and PCBs by incorporating the current
data for dioxins and PCBs in fish species. The dioxins and PCB concentrations
of a UK adult diet, including fish, were expressed on an energy basis (pg
TEQ/kcal) using the mean adult energy intake and dioxins and PCB exposures of
adult consumers in 1992. Multiplying these concentrations, expressed on an
energy basis, by the average daily energy intake of toddlers gives the estimated
toddler exposures to dioxins and PCBs shown in Table 6.
In practice, the consumption of fish by toddlers is likely to be different from
that of adults. For example, toddlers are more likely to consume a greater
proportion of fish fingers than adults and eat less oily fish. Toddler exposure
from the consumption of particular species have therefore not been estimated
using this procedure.
The COT has considered the dietary exposures to dioxins and PCBs of adults,
schoolchildren and toddlers estimated from the results of the current survey.
Its full statement is given in an Annex 1. The
estimated dietary exposure of the average UK adult consumer is below both the
current UK TDI and the upper level of the recently recommended WHO TDI for
dioxins and PCBs. The COT also noted that schoolchildren and toddlers may
exceed the newly recommended WHO TDI but, in view of the assumptions made in
their derivation, these exposure estimates should be viewed with caution. The
Committee also reiterated their earlier advice that further monitoring for
dioxins and PCBs in the UK diet should continue in order to confirm the
declining trend in concentrations of these chemicals in food.
The Committee on the Medical Aspects of Food Policy (COMA) has advised that
there should be an increase in the consumption of oily fish to an average of one
portion per person per week. This recommendation was made on the basis of
evidence that an increasing exposure to certain long chain polyunsaturated fatty
acids (PUFAs) reduces mortality from cardiovascular disease. Oily fish are a
rich source of PUFAs. Not all UK adults eat oily fish. Of those people who do,
an average adult consumer of oily fish eats about one portion per week; the
consequent exposure to dioxins and PCBs was estimated to be 0.82 pg WHO-TEQ/kg
bodyweight/day. The COT have recommended that all adults adhere to the COMA
advice to eat, on average, one portion of oily fish each week, as this will
confer health benefits and yet not result in the majority of individuals
exceeding either the recently recommended WHO TDI or the current UK TDI for
dioxins and PCBs. Although the estimated exposure of a high level adult
consumer of oily fish falls between the current UK TDI and the newly recommended
WHO TDI, the COT has noted that this consumer will be eating more oily fish than
is required to satisfy the recommendation of COMA, which was made on health
The samples for the current survey were analysed raw. It has been
demonstrated that concentrations of PCBs in bluefish fillets decreased on
average by 46 per cent when cooked by various methods.23-26
It is probable that cooking also reduces concentrations of dioxins in fish, as
has been demonstrated for meat.27 This could
have the effect of reducing the estimated dietary exposure to dioxins and PCBs
from marine fish, especially if the fish juices produced during cooking are not
consumed. It has also been demonstrated that removal of the skin from carp
reduces the concentration of PCBs in the carp by around 50 per cent.28
Concentrations of dioxins and PCBs found in this survey varied with the
species of fish, fat content, and the month of sampling. Concentrations of
dioxins and PCBs on a fat basis were significantly higher in herring, red fish
and plaice than in the other species. Concentrations of dioxins and PCBs on a
fat basis were significantly lower in haddock and mackerel. Concentrations were
also significantly lower in fish samples collected in February 1996 than in
those collected in November and May 1996.
In general, concentrations of chemicals such as dioxins and PCBs in fish
depend on their fat contents, the extent to which the fish migrate, the number
of times they spawn, and their ages, size and feeding habits.29 For example, plaice are bottom-feeding fish and
therefore may be more exposed to dioxins and PCBs bound to sediment. Herring
has a relatively high fat content and is non-migratory, which renders it more
subject to localised contamination sources.30
The Scottish Office has found that concentrations of total PCBs in herring from
the River Clyde are higher than in those from the North Sea and River Forth.31
For some years the International Committee for the Exploration of the Sea
(ICES) has routinely analysed a limited set of 7 PCB congeners (PCB congeners
28, 52, 101, 118, 138, 153 and 180) in fish. The list is based on congeners
which are relatively abundant in fish and was drawn up before the use of TEFs
was extended to PCBs. The concentrations of PCBs expressed as the sum of these
7 congeners are generally referred to as SigmaICES 7 concentrations. The
SigmaICES 7 concentrations of PCBs found in the current survey of 12 salmon
samples are in the range 66-230 micrograms/kg fat, with a mean value of 140
micrograms/kg fat. In 1997 the Veterinary Medicines Directorate (VMD) reported
that a total of 161 samples of salmon were assayed for the ICES 7 PCB congeners.
All samples contained detectable concentrations in the range 23-630
micrograms/kg fat, with a mean value of 250 micrograms/kg fat.32 Dioxins are not analysed in the VMD monitoring.
Surveys of marine fish have also been carried out in other countries,
especially for PCBs. The mean concentrations found in these surveys are
presented in Table 7 with, for comparison, those found
in the current survey. Where results from other countries were expressed as
I-TEQs, those for the current survey have been also for convenience. Where PCB
results were expressed in terms of SigmaICES 7 concentrations, this has also
been done for the current survey. In general the concentrations found in the
current survey are broadly similar to those found elsewhere. However,
concentrations have been found to be higher in fish taken from the Baltic Sea, a
sea which is known to be contaminated. Long term monitoring of PCBs in herring
from the Baltic Sea since 1978 has shown that concentrations of PCBs have fallen
by 6.3-13 per cent per year.33 It is probable
that dioxins and PCBs concentrations in marine fish on sale in the UK have also
fallen since the samples for the current MAFF survey were taken, in line with
the trend found in Total Diet Study samples between 1982 and 1992.1
||a kilogram (kg) is one thousand grams (g).|
||a nanogram (ng) is one thousand millionth of a gram (g).|
||a picogram (pg) is one million millionth of a gram (g).|
||a microgram is one millionth of a gram (g).|
||nanograms of WHO Toxic Equivalents per kilogram; equivalent to parts per
million million (parts per trillion) by weight|
||nanograms of International Toxic Equivalents per kilogram; equivalent to
parts per million million (parts per trillion) by weight|
||picograms of WHO Toxic Equivalents per kilogram; equivalent to parts per
thousand million million (parts per quadrillion) by weight.|
- Ministry of
Agriculture, Fisheries and Food (1997) Dioxins and Polychlorinated Biphenyls and
Foods and Human Milk. Food Surveillance Information Sheet No. 105,
- Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries
and Food (1997) Dioxins and Polychlorinated Biphenyls in Fish Oil Dietary
Supplements and Licensed Medicines. Food Surveillance Information Sheet
No. 106, MAFF, London.
- North Atlantic Treaty Organisation, Committee on the
Challenges of Modern Society (1988) International Toxicity Equivalency Factor
(I-TEF) method of risk assessment for complex mixtures of dioxins and related
compounds. Pilot study on international information exchange on dioxins and
related compounds. CCMS Report Number 176, publ. Environmental
Protection Agency, Washington D.C., USA.
- Ahlborg, U.G., Becking, G.C., Birnbaum, L.S.,
Brouwer, A., Derks, H.J.G.M., Feeley, M., Golor, G., Hanberg, A., Larsen,
Liem, A.K.D., Safe, S.H., Schlatter, C., Wærn, F., Younes, M. and Yrjänheikki,
E. (1994) Toxic equivalency factors for dioxin-like PCBs: report on a WHO-ECEH
and IPCS consultation, December 1993. Chemosphere 28,
- Ministry of
Agriculture, Fisheries and Food (1998) Dioxins and PCBs in Farmed Trout in
England and Wales. Food Surveillance Information Sheet No.
145, MAFF, London.
- Committee on Toxicity of Chemicals in Food, Consumer
Products and the Environment (1999) Statement on surveillance for PCDDs, PCDFs
and PCBs marine fish and fish products, Department of Health, London.
- Van den Berg, M., Birnbaum, L., Bosveld, A.T.C.,
B., Cook, P., Feeley, M., Giesy, J.P., Hanberg, A., Hasegawa, R., Kennedy, S.W.,
Kubiak, T., Larsen, J.C., van Leeuwen, F.X.R., Liem, A.K.D., Nolt, C., Peterson,
R.E., Poellinger, L., Safe, S., Schrenk, D., Tillitt, D., Tysklind, M., Younes,
M., Waern, F. and Zacharewski, T. (1998). Toxic equivalency factors (TEFs) for
PCBs, PCDDs, PCDFs for humans and wildlife. Environmental Health
Perspectives 106, 775-792.
- Committee on Toxicity of Chemicals in Food, Consumer
Products and the Environment (1997). Statement on the health hazards of
polychlorinated biphenyls, Department of Health.
- Leeuwen, F.X.R,. and Younes, M. (1998). WHO revises the
Tolerable Daily Intake (TDI) for dioxins. Paper presented at the 18th Symposium
on Halogenated Environmental Organic Pollutants, Stockholm, 17-21 August 1998.
Organohalogen Compounds 38 295-298.
- Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food (1992)
Dioxins in Food. Food Surveillance Paper No. 31, publ. The
- Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food (1983)
Polychlorinated biphenyl (PCBs) residues in food and human tissues. Food
Surveillance Paper No. 13, publ. The Stationery Office.
- Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food (1987) The
concentrations of metals, organochlorine pesticides and PCB residues in marine
fish and shellfish: results from MAFF fish and shellfish monitoring programmes,
1977-1984. Aquatic Environment Monitoring Report No. 16, publ.
Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food, Lowestoft.
- Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food (1990) Monitoring and
surveillance of non-radioactive contaminants in the aquatic environment,
1984-1987. Aquatic Environment Monitoring Report No .22, publ.
Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food, Lowestoft.
- Paul, A.A. and Southgate, D.A.T. (1979) McCance and
Widdowson's The Composition of Foods (Fourth revised edition), publ. The
Stationery Office, London.
- Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food (1993) Sea
fisheries statistics, publ. The Stationery Office.
- Ministry of
Agriculture, Fisheries and Food (1998) Concentrations of metals and other
elements in marine fish and shellfish. Food Surveillance Information Sheet
No. 151, MAFF, London.
- Krokos, F., Creaser, C.S., Wright, C. and Startin, J.R.
(1997) Congener-specific method for the determination of ortho- and non-ortho
polychlorinated biphenyls, polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and
polychlorinated dibenzofurans in foods by carbon-column fractionation and gas
chromatography-isotope dilution mass spectrometry. Fresenius Journal of
Analytical Chemistry 357, 732-742.
- CSL Report FD97/66 (1998) PCDDs, PCDFs and PCBs in Marine
Fish, Salmon and Fish Fingers.
- Ambidge, P.F., Cox, E.A., Creaser, C.S., Greenberg,
M., Gem, M.G. de M., Gilbert, J., Jones, P.W., Kibblewhite, M.G., Levey,
J., Lisseter, S.G., Meredith, T.J., Smith, L., Smith, P., Startin, J.R.,
Stenhouse, I. and Whitworth, M. (1990) Acceptance criteria for analytical data
on polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans.
- Gregory, J., Foster, K., Tyler, H. and Wiseman, M. (1990)
Dietary and nutritional survey of British adults, publ. The Stationery Office,
- Department of Health, Committee on Medical Aspects of
Food Policy (1989) The diets of British schoolchildren. Report on Health
and Social Subjects No. 36, publ. The Stationery Office.
- Gregory, J.R., Collins, D.L., Davies, P.S.W.,
Hughes, J.M. and Clarke, P.C. (1995) National Dietary and Nutritional Survey:
aged 1½ to 4½ years. Volume 1: report of the diet and nutritional
study, publ. The Stationery Office.
- Salama, A.A., Mohamed, M.A.M., Duval, B., Potter, T.L.
and Levin, R.E. (1998) Polychlorinated biphenyl concentration in raw and cooked
North Atlantic bluefish (Pomatomus saltatrix) fillets. Journal
of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 46, 1359-1362.
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biphenyls and pesticides in bluefish before and after cooking. Journal of
the Association of Official Analytical Chemists 72, 501-503.
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residue reduction by cooking/processing of fish fillets harvested from the Great
Lakes. Bulletin of Environmetnal Contamination and Toxicology 55,
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Pesticide residues, PCBs and PAHs in baked, charbroiled, salt boiled and smoked
Great Lakes lake trout. Food Chemistry 55, 231-239.
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Reduction in polychlorinated dibenzodioxin and dibenzofuran residues in
hamburger meat during cooking. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
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Song, J.-H., Welch, R. and Humphrey, H. (1995) Pesticides and total
polychlorinated biphenyls in chinook salmon and carp harvested from the Great
Lakes: effects of skin-on and skin-off processing and selected cooking methods.
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 43, 993-1001.
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A. and Okla, L. (1996) Persistent pollutants in a salmon population (Salmo salar)
of the southern Baltic Sea. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic
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P.-A., Broman, D., Falandysz, J., Näf, C., Papakosta, O., Rolff, C. and
Rappe, C. (1998) Concentrations and spatial variations of cyclodienes and other
organochlorines in herring and perch from the Baltic Sea. The Science of
the Total Environment 215, 69-83.
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contaminants in liver of cod (Gadus morhua) and muscle of herring (Clupea
harengus) from Scottish waters. Marine Pollution Bulletin 28,
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Veterinary Medicines Directorate Annual Report on Surveillance for Veterinary
Residues in 1997, No. PB 2798, publ. The Veterinary Medicines
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Zakrisson, S., Litzén, K., Eriksson, U., Häggberg, L. and Alsberg,
T. (1998) Temporal trends of organochlorines in Northern Europe, 1967-1995.
Relation to global fractionation, leakage from sediments and international
measures. Environmental Pollution 99, 177-198.
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Schlabach, M. and Alexander, J. (1998) Dietary exposure and human body burden
of dioxins and dioxin-like PCBs in Norway. Paper presented at 18th Symposium,
on Halogenated Environmental Organic Pollutants, Stockholm, 17-21 August 1998.
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Andersson, Ö. and Larsson, L. (1996) Survey of consumption fish from
Swedish waters for chlorinated pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls. Chemosphere
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Polychlorinated biphenyls in Barents and Greenland seas fish. Bulletin of
Environmental Contamination and Toxicology. 58, 885-892.
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polychloroaromatic compounds in Baltic fish and seal. Chemosphere 20,
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Darnerud, P.O., Larsson, L., Ohlsson, M. and Sandström, O. (1996)
Polychlorinated biphenyls in salmon (Salmo salar) from the Swedish east
coast. Paper presented at 18th Symposium, on Halogenated Environmental Organic
Pollutants, Stockholm, 17-21 August 1998.
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Hvidsten, N.A, Johnsen, B.O. and Kashin, E. (1998) Dioxins and non-ortho
PCBs in Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar, from major Norwegian and Russian
salmon rivers. Paper presented at 18th Symposium, on Halogenated Environmental
Organic Pollutants, Stockholm, 17-21 August 1998.
Table 8: Concentrations of dioxins and PCBs
individual marine fish, salmon and fish finger samples
Click here to view the Excel 5.0 version of Table 8
Click here to view the .csv version of Table 8 (if you have
any other spreadsheet package)
19: MAFF, UK -
Dioxins in Cows' Milk (November 1993)
43: MAFF, UK - Dioxins in Cows' Milk
44: MAFF, UK -
Contaminants in Cows' Milk from the Clitheroe Area (October 1994)
71: MAFF, UK - Dioxins in Food - UK
Dietary Intakes (July 1995)
MAFF, UK - Dioxins in Cows' Milk from the Bolsover Area (November 1995)
88: MAFF, UK - Dioxins in Human Milk (May
89: MAFF, UK -
Polychlorinated Biphenyls in Food - UK (May 1996)
100: MAFF, UK - Dioxins in Cows' Milk from
farms close to Industrial Sites (January 1997)
105: MAFF, UK - Dioxins and
Polychlorinated Biphenyls in Foods and Human Milk (June 1997)
106: MAFF, UK - Dioxins and
Polychlorinated Biphenyls in Fish Oil Dietary Supplements and Licensed Medicines
107: MAFF, UK -
Dioxins and PCBs in Cows Milk from Farms Close to Industrial Sites (June 1997)
120: MAFF, UK - Dioxins in Cows' Milk from
Northern Ireland (August 1997)
MAFF, UK - Dioxins and PCBs in Cows' Milk from farms close to Industrial Sites:
1996 Survey Results (August 1997)
124: MAFF, UK - Dioxins and PCBs in Cows'
Milk from the Bolsover Area (August 1997)
133: MAFF, UK - Dioxins and PCBs in Cows'
Milk from farms close to Industrial Sites: Rotherham 1997 (November 1997)
134: MAFF, UK - Dioxins and PCBs in Cows'
Milk from the Bolsover Area - October 1997 (November 1997)
135: MAFF, UK - Dioxins and PCBs in Cows'
Milk from farms close to Industrial Sites: Huddersfield 1997 (November 1997)
136: MAFF, UK - Dioxins and PCBs in Retail
Cows' Milk in England (December 1997)
143: MAFF, UK - Dioxins and PCBs in Cows'
Milk from the Bolsover Area Collected in October and November 1997 (March 1998)
145: MAFF UK - Dioxins and PCBs in Farmed
Trout in England and Wales (March 1998)
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These pages were last updated on 30 July 1999